The results of evaluation of mRNA expression of transcription factors GATA3, FOXP3, TBX21, STAT3, NFKB1 and MAPK8 in peripheral blood cells in 264 residents of the Techa Riverside villages of the Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions, who were exposed to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure in the 1950s are presented. The range of individual values of red bone marrow dose due to external gamma exposure and 90Sr was 77.8–3507.1 mGy, the average value was 706.3 ± 46.3 mGy. It was found that changes in the transcriptional response of the cell occur at the molecular level long term after chronic radiation exposure. Modification of expression of immunoregulatory genes NFKB1 and MAPK8 in the peripheral blood cells of exposed people was noted. A comparative analysis of the interaction of the studied mRNAs demonstrated the presence of a link between MAPK8 and NFKB1 genes in a group of chronically exposed individuals. The obtained results may indicate the involvement of these transcription factors in the violation of the immune response in the exposed population.